References and Links

Useful textbooks:

  • Anatomy & physiology : the unity of form and function (3rd edition)

        Author: Kenneth S. Saladin with Leslie Miller

        Publisher: Boston : McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2003

  • Biology (7th edition)

        Author: Neil A. Campbell, Jane B. Reece

        Publisher: San Francisco, Calif. ; London : Pearson/Benjamin Cummings, 2005

  • Biology : the unity and diversity of life (10th edition)

        Author: Cecie Starr, Ralph Taggart

        Publisher: Belmont, Calif. : Brooks/Cole, 2004


Useful websites:

Other Sources:

Wikipedia and Flickr sites provided information and copyright-friendly images used in this website:

Further Reading:

V Gattone (2009)

Kidney structure and function.

Microscopy and Microanalysis 15 74-75


V. Torres, P. Harris, Y. Pirson (2009)

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

The Lancet 369(9569) 1287-1301


Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, et al (2009)

A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate.

Ann Intern Med. 150 604-612



Lesley A. Stevens, M.D., Josef Coresh, M.D., Ph.D., Tom Greene, Ph.D., and Andrew S. Levey, M.D (2006)

Assessing kidney function - measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate.

The New England Journal of Medicine 354 2473-2483


Anderson S, Brenner BM (1987)

The aging kidney: structure, function, mechanisms, and therapeutic implications.

J Am Geriatr Soc. 35(6) 590-593


Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen and Roberta O'Dell (1961)

Structure and concentrating mechanism in the mammalian kidney.

Am J Physiol 200 1119-1124


Daniel C. Pease (1955)

Fine structures of the kidney seen by electron microscopy.

J. Histochem. Cytochem 3(4) 295

Did you know..

More than 2500 pints of blood passes through the kidney each day.

Did you know..

Drinking two or more carbonated drinks a day was linked to a twofold risk of chronic disease.

(From a study published in Epidemiology)

Did you know..

Only mammals and birds have juxtamedullary nephrons. Other vertebrates have nephrons that lack loops of Henle.