Kidney Diseases

Kidney function can be impaired by several ways, for example infections, tumors, kidney stones, exposure to dangerous chemicals and circulatory disease. Millions of people in UK have kidney disease.

Here are some examples of kidney diseases: 

Renal Dysplasia
Renal Dysplasia

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  •  Renal dysplasia is a congenital kidney disease characterised by abnormal differentiation of renal tissues.


Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)

Polycystic Kidney Disease

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  • PKD is also a congenital kidney disease
  • A PKD patient has multiple fluid-filled cysts in both kidneys
  • Causes massive enlargement ot kidneys
  • There are 2 types of PKD: autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive


  • A 9 mm kidney stone!Refers to the condition when an individial has kidney stones(renal calculi)
  • Kidney stones that are at least 1.5 mm in size can cause obstruction of the ureter, leading to excruciating pain, most commonly felt in the flank and lower abdomen
  • Presence of kidney stones causes dilation and stretching of upper ureter and renal pelvis
  • Can lead to destruction of nephrons

Kidney stone. Image courtesy of 


  • Is an autoimmune disease caused by inflammation of the glomeruli
  • Can be divided into 2 types: proliferative (increase in number of cells in glomerulus) and non-proliferative (decrease in number of cells in glomerulus)
Diabetic nephropathy (Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome)
  • Is a disease caused by angiopathy of capillaries in the glomeruli
  • Often occurs in diabetes mellitus patients

 Bad Kidneys!

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Did you know..

More than 2500 pints of blood passes through the kidney each day.

Did you know..

Drinking two or more carbonated drinks a day was linked to a twofold risk of chronic disease.

(From a study published in Epidemiology)

Did you know..

Only mammals and birds have juxtamedullary nephrons. Other vertebrates have nephrons that lack loops of Henle.